Difference Between Nucleus and Nucleolus

By: | Updated: Jul-6, 2021

The human body is made up of many parts, and each part has a function. For example, the heart is responsible for pumping blood to the rest of the body. The brains responsible for thinking. The liver is responsible for filtering blood. There are also many other organs in the human body, and each organ is made of many parts. Nucleus and nucleolus are two of the most important parts in the human body. They are responsible for controlling the cell and its functions.

With that being said, what are the differences between nucleus and nucleolus? In this article, we will discuss the differences between nucleus and nucleolus, their functions, where they are located, and how they affect the human body. So, let’s begin.

Summary Table:

Nucleus Nucleolus
Is the center of our cells Is a very small structure that sits on the outer edge of the nucleus
Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Contains a special type of DNA called histone
Is usually found in all eukaryotic cells Can be found at a part of the nucleus called perinucleolar space or at a location called nucleolus organizer region (NOR)

Definitions:

Difference Between Nucleus and Nucleolus

Before we talk about the differences between “nucleus” and “nucleolus”, let’s first define what we mean by “nucleus” and “nucleolus.” To do this, we need to take a look back at the definitions and meanings of these two words, as well as understand what goes on in the human body.

What is a nucleus?

The nucleus is a part of the cell that contains most of the cell’s DNA and all of its genetic information. In a healthy cell, the nucleus has a regular shape and size, with no visible membrane surrounding it. A nucleus is composed of chromatin and organelles, including the nucleolus.

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What is nucleolus?

The nucleolus is a tiny part of the nucleus, located between the nucleus and mitochondria. The main function of this small part of the cell is to store RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is a key molecule for the translation of DNA into proteins.

What are the purposes of the nucleus and nucleolus?

The purpose of the nucleus is to provide genetic information, while the function of the nucleolus is to store RNA. The two parts are interconnected, so they are connected through processes that ensure proper protein synthesis. For example, when a gene in DNA (or RNA) is being transcribed into a protein, the nucleus provides the genetic information for this process. Then, RNA is transferred to the nucleolus.

In addition, the function of the nucleus is to store DNA and genes in its chromosomes. This is important because it allows the nucleus to replicate itself and produce new cells.

The nucleolus plays a role in RNA synthesis. For example, when a gene is being transcribed into RNA, RNA is synthesized in the nucleolus before being transferred to the nucleus. In this way, the nucleolus ensures that all of the RNA molecules produced are being stored in the nucleus.

In addition, when a cell divides and makes new cells, it will have some nucleolus present in both of these new cells. In this way, the newly formed cells are genetically identical to each other.

Where are nucleus and nucleolus located?

The nucleus is located in the middle of the cell, and it is surrounded by membranes. The nucleolus is located inside a membrane in the nucleus.

How are nucleus and nucleolus connected?

As mentioned above, the nucleolus is connected to the nucleus through a protein complex. This protein complex ensures that RNA synthesized in the nucleolus is transferred to the nucleus. It also ensures that all of the RNA molecules stored in the nucleus are used for translation of DNA into proteins.

What is involved in a cell division?

In a cell division, the nucleus divides into two identical nuclei. These two nuclei are then able to create new cells. The nucleus also stores DNA and genes in its chromosomes. When a cell divides, these chromosomes are duplicated in both of the newly formed cells. This is why both of the newly formed cells are genetically identical to each other.

Nucleus Vs. Nucleolus:

As you may know, there are several words that have a similar meaning. For example, “nucleus” and “nucleolus” are both used to describe the center of a cell. However, they have different meanings. Now, let’s take a look at the differences between nucleus and nucleolus and how the human body works.

1. The general definitions

The nucleus is the center of our cells, and it contains the genetic material that determines everything about our cells, including their characteristics. The nucleus controls all functions in the cell and helps control how fast or slow they grow. It also regulates how cells die and how they reproduce.

The nucleolus is a very small structure that sits on the outer edge of the nucleus, and it helps control cell reproduction. The nucleolus helps in controlling which genes are used to produce new cells and which ones are not used for producing new cells.

2. The genetic material

The nucleus is the most important part of the cell that contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). It has about 10,000 genes and determines all our characteristics. On the other hand, nucleolus is a tiny particle inside the nucleus that contains a special type of DNA. This DNA is called histone, and it helps control how genes are used. Histones have several important functions in the cell.

3. The location of the nucleus and nucleolus

The nucleus is located in the center of the cell, and it has a shape that looks like a small “egg”. It is usually found in all eukaryotic cells. The nucleolus can be found at different locations in different types of cells.

It can be found on the outside of the nucleus, or it can be found in the center of the nucleus. It can be found at a part of the nucleus called perinucleolar space or at a location called nucleolus organizer region (NOR). The latter is located on the outer edge of the nucleus. The location of the nucleolus depends on the type of cell it is found in.

4. The DNA

As mentioned above, the nucleus contains a lot of DNA, and it is divided into two parts. The chromosome is located in the center of the nucleus, and the DNA surrounding it is called the nuclear membrane. The genome is divided into 23 pairs of chromosomes that are arranged in four groups (numerical chromosomes).

In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. These pairs are numbered from 1 to 22. The 23rd pair is called the sex chromosomes, and it determines whether a person is male or female.

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