Difference between Primary and General Election

By: | Updated: Feb-8, 2018

In the US, two different kinds of elections are held to determine who will hold public office. While primary and general elections are essential processes in place in a democratic system, each serves different purposes from the other, which this article seeks to explain.

Summary Table

Primary ElectionGeneral Election
Electoral process for choosing a candidate to represent a political partyElectoral process for choosing from party candidates who will hold public office
Party members compete with each otherRepresentatives of each political party run against each other
Can be open or closed to the voting publicCan only be open to the voting public
Handled by the stateHandled by the federal government
Ballots cannot contain candidates from other partiesBallots can contain a mix of candidates from all parties

Descriptions

Democratic presidential primaries
The 2016 Democratic presidential primaries with Hilary Clinton winning over Bernie Sanders

A primary election is an election process that political parties conduct to determine their local, state, and federal candidates who will be running for office in a coming election. Also known as an electoral college, political parties use this process to choose a candidate who stands a better chance of winning a political position over other candidates from other political parties.

Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton
The 2016 US general election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton

A general election is the electoral process where voters finally get to choose among the winning candidates from the primaries. It encompasses all levels, starting from the city, county, district, and involves at least two competing parties.

Primary Election vs General Election

While both electoral processes are essential in determining who gets to occupy public office, the most basic difference between a primary election and a general election is their specific purpose. Primary elections serve as a means for political parties to choose who will represent their party in local, state, and federal elections. In the US, Republicans compete with fellow Republicans while Democrats square off with Democrats.

A general election then follows where the voting public gets to choose who they want to hold public office from the winning candidates from the primary election. A general election is also necessary to fill positions left vacant because of the death or resignation of the office holder.

Types

A primary election can be closed (registered party members only) or open to the voting public. It can also come in four variations where non-members can vote for their preferred party (semi-closed) or use a party-specific ballot. General elections can only be open and are never closed or semi-closed to the public.

Schedules

The Democratic Party traditionally holds its primaries from January to June of an election year while Republicans choose party representatives from January to July. General elections are held on the first Tuesday of November. Depending on the political position being filled, general elections are conducted every two to six years including presidential elections, and specifically, are held on the first Tuesday of November which may fall anywhere between the 2nd and 8th of the month.

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